Contemplative Chewing The Cud
Therefore, one needed law to serve as curb;
a ruler, too, was needed, one who could
discern at least the tower of the true city.
The laws exist, but who applies them now?
No one-the shepherd who precedes his flock
can chew the cud but does not have cleft hooves;
The explantation of the chewing the cud & cloven hoof:
Spiritual rule is symbolized by ”chewing the cud,“ which had come to signify meditation, and temporal rule by ”having cloven hoofs,“ Charles S. SingletonBenedict is contemplative; Francis is active:
There are not two popes, but one yet expanded Petrine Ministry with Francis and Benedict both as members -- one active, the other contemplative. Archbishop Gänswein
Active Cloven Hoof
St Thomas Aquinas on Chewing the Cud & Cloven Hoof:
The animal that chews the cud and has a divided hoof, is clean in signification. Because division of the hoof is a figure of the two Testaments: or of the Father and Son: or of the two natures in Christ: of the distinction of good and evil. While chewing the cud signifies meditation on the Scriptures and a sound understanding thereof; and whoever lacks either of these is spiritually unclean. Q.102.A.6.
There is the Roman Pontiff to rule supreme in spiritual, and there is the Roman Emperor to rule supreme in temporals.
But now that there is no Roman Emperor to rule supreme in temporals, and have two popes instead, and according to Gänswein, it is Pope Benedict who is the Contemplative or chewing the cud, and it is Francis who is the Active or the one with Cloven hooves
This is what you get when there is no Roman Emperor to rule in temporals.
Further commentary on Dante's the meaning on chewing the cud & cleft hooves:
Robert Hollander (2000-2007), Purgatorio 16.97-99
This tercet explains the vigorous and unusual Ghibelline turn in the preceding verses. The laws, left us by Justinian, exist but are not enforced. And this blame is laid upon the Church for keeping the emperor from power, since the pope may indeed ruminate, but does not distinguish between ecclesiastical and secular power. Tozer (comm. to verse 99) explains the reference as follows: 'The terms here used refer to the tests by which beasts were determined to be clean under the Mosaic law, i.e., that they should chew the cud and divide the hoof (Lev. 11:3). As applied to the Heads of the Church, the allegorical meaning of “chewing the cud” seems to be the acquisition of wisdom by pondering on sources of knowledge; but in respect of “dividing the hoof” the symbolism is twofold.... First, it signifies the practice of good morals,... and it is applied in this sense in vv. 100-105, where it is explained that it was the unprincipled conduct of the Roman Court which had demoralized the world. Secondly, the dividing of the hoof represents the separation of the temporal and spiritual powers, which principle the popes had ignored. This interpretation is found in vv. 127-129, where the Church of Rome is spoken of as a beast of burden, which falls in the mud in consequence of its not distinguishing between these two spheres of government, the reference obviously being to the support given to such animals in slippery ground by the divided hoof. The two allegorical applications are not wholly unconnected with one another, because it was greed of worldly gains which led to the appropriation of the temporal power by the Papacy.'
Robert Hollander (2000-2007), Purgatorio 16.67-129
Marco's speech, the only object of possible attention in the darkness, twenty-one terzine of moral philosophy, may be paraphrased as follows: If the heavens moved all things, there would be no free will; even if they did, you would still have the power to resist and conquer (67-78); to a greater power and better nature than the celestial heavens you, free, are subject, and that creates the mind [the rational soul] in you, which has nothing to do with those revolving spheres (79-83); let me expand: God lovingly created the (rational) soul in each of you; at its birth, since it was made by Him, even if it is a tabula rasa, it loves; and it loves anything at all if it is not guided or restrained; therefore, a leader and laws are necessary (84-96); laws exist, but who administers them? no one, because the pope is involved in temporal affairs and thus gives the wrong example that is much imitated (97-102); thus you can see that bad guidance and not corrupt human nature accounts for the wickedness of the world; Rome, which once made the world good, used then to have two suns which lit each path, secular and sacred (103-108); now, since the regal and pastoral functions have been conjoined, ill ensues – by their fruits shall you know them (109-114); in northern Italy, which once was the home of courtesy and valor before the Church opposed Frederick II, there are now but three good men, all of them old (115-126); thus you must make it known that the Church of Rome is befouled and befouling, arrogating unto itself both governments (127-129).
Charles S. Singleton (1970-75), Purgatorio 16.98-99
però che 'l pastor... fesse: Spiritual rule is symbolized by ”chewing the cud,“ which had come to signify meditation, and temporal rule by ”having cloven hoofs,“ signifying the making of distinctions, in an established allegorical interpretation of Lev. 11:3: ”Omne quod habet divisam ungulam et ruminat in pecoribus comedetis.“ (”Any animal that has hoofs you may eat, provided it is cloven-footed and chews the cud.“) See also Deut. 14:6. The pope confounds the two rules or divinely ordained governances by usurping the office of temporal guide without being a competent horseman who holds the reins in his hand, i.e., who enforces the law (for that is not his proper office as decreed by God). Pietro di Dante comments:
Dicta duo requiruntur in praelatis, et etiam in omnibus
aliis regentibus, scilicet ruminare, hoc est sapere et
habere discretionem, quod figuratur in ungulis fissis. Et
sic praesentes pastores, licet sint sapientes, et sic
ruminant, tamen non habent ungulas fissas in discernendo et
dividendo temporalia a spiritualibus, et sic temporalem
iurisdictionem occupando, quae penitus debet esse divisa.
These two things are required in prelates and also in all
others who rule, that is, ruminare, which is to know, and
habere discretionem, which is figured in cloven hoofs.
And thus modern-day pastors, though they be sapientes and
thus ruminate, yet they do not have cloven hoofs in
discerning and separating temporal things from spiritual
things, and thus they assume temporal jurisdiction which
should be wholly separate.